ORGONE THERAPY FROM A POST-REICHIAN PERSPECTIVE
AUTHOR: XAVIER SERRANO HORTELANO
POST-REICHAN WRITTEN WORKS
Three chapters extracted and translated into English (originally published in Spanish)
Original publishers ES.TE.R - Escuela Espanola de Terapia Reichiana (Spanish School of Reichan Therapy)
For further information on this and other publications by ES.TE.R please contact:
ES.TE.R Estate Secretary:
Guinea Ecuatorial 4, 1C. 46022 Valencia. Spain
2.0 Wilhelm Reich and Post-Reichan Orgone Therapy
3.0 Fundamental Theoretical Parameters of Orgone Therapy
3.1 Health, Sickness and Normality
3.2 Clinical and Planned Objectives
3.3 Characterial Structures
4.0 Clinical Praxis of Orgone Therapy
4.2 Clinical Systematic: Characteranalytic Vegetotherapy
a) Space and Relation Therapy
b) The Neuromusculars (the 'Actings')
c) Verbal Integration and Analytic Production
4.3 Convergent Energetic Tools
2. WILHELM REICH AND POST-REICHAN ORGONE THERAPY
Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957), pioneer of sexology, social psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine, former psychoanalyst, progressively developed a freudian ortodoxia throughout his life within a specific clinical labor.
Reich initially defined this as 'Sexual Economy' in 1927, subsequently as 'Characteranalytic Vegetotherapy' in 1936 and then ultimately as 'Orgone Therapy' in 1945. He executed this work without compromising any of his basic principles. The methodology of orgone therapy was initiated by taking psychoanalysis (in the freudian sense) as the starting point and then carrying out construction utilizing clinical experience. Reich did not begin from a paradigm but partially created orgone therapy by processing information gathered from his experience of observing and listening to his patients -that is to say, he created the proposals of the new discipline as it was developing, so as to give possible answers to the technical problems that hindered the therapeutical process. This was done in a way so that the limits of customary technique would not impede the benefits of the process to the patients at the base of his diagnostic and therefore possibly excluding them from psychoanalysis.
The logic of this investigation from this position, was carried out with admirable scientific rigor, opening the possibility of methodological access to a dimension of the 'subjectivity' of the person. This dimension was previously hidden by the empiricism-experimentalization of that exclusively center in the objective dimension of the same.
Reich, from his position of a responsible teacher in Vienna, contributed to the psychoanalytic technical corpus particularly adding 'character analysis' as a technical production of the analysis of resistances and transferential resistances that can take place in the name of 'negative therapeutic reaction', not taking into account the 'latent negative transference'.
He introduced working with the 'real body' of the person with access via the unconscious which was in stark contrast to other psychoanalyists who considered the body as a representation or an ideal containment (imaginary body). Reich discovered in the neurovegetative system a somatic substratum of the psychoanalytic. The articulation of the unconscious did not have to be to the effect of the representation of the repression, but of the repression of the effects (Garcia-1990).
Together with his contributions to analytic theory and his introduction of the 'orgastic capacity' (in 1927) that modified the foundations of recent sexology, he gradually introduced neurovegetative variables along with the somatic and energetic body in the analytic production of the psychism.
In 1936, in Norway, Reich conducted experiments of 'bio-electric potential' of the skin in the phenomenons of pleasure and anguish (Reich-1936), and observations of the internal movements of live substances, together with a group of biologists and physiologists from Oslo. The group was in contact with Roger Du Teil from Paris, who discovered a new radiation that he defined as 'Orgon' (Reich-1938). At the initial discovery phase, Du Teil identified it as 'vital energy', differentiating it from metabolic energy as the sexual energy as a maximum expression of the same in the live organism (Raknes-1970).
This professional evolution supports a structural change in the form of the clinical difficulties in observing the patient suffering an energetic imbalance - the product of the incapacity to adjust pulse and regulate energetically produced by the muscular character armour due to chronic muscular tensions, and the tendency of chronic inspiration and orgastic incapacity withdrawal(Reich-1942). All of the former generated a 'character structure' that searches for mechanisms of secondary regulation in order to maintain an equilibrium within the imbalance. It is from this that Reich makes a distinction between the 'characteral neurosis' in which the symptom (asymptomatic) is the self character, and 'clinical neurosis' where the pathological symptoms are signals of character balance (or equilibrium) overflow, which produces a limitation in the capacity of pleasure and energy regulation of the human animal.
Reich constructed the foundations for a development of 'Corporal Psychotherapy' with a clinical system that defined this as 'Characteranalytic Vegetotherapy'. Further, he also worked with various energetic treatment experts (Or.Ac; Dor-Buster...) and formed a therapeutic model that was defined as 'Orgone Therapy'.
When Reich emigrated to the United States in 1939, as in Europe, he was surrounded by fellow professionals that continued his work through clinical practice and investigation, therefore carrying forward the evolution of the Reich paradigm and the updating and strengthening his basic theories. Reich's own identifications of his theories had marked differences to the contributions of other neo-reichan authors who had developed their own therapeutic models (eg. bio-energetic analysis, bio-synthesis...).
'The Spanish School of Reichan Therapy' ('Escuela Espanola de Terapia Reichiana') was founded in 1982, by myself and fellow spanish members of the 'European School of Orgone Therapy' ('Scuola Europea di Orgonoterapia')of Italy. The latter was founded by Frederico Navarro, an Italian neuropsychiatrist, who has worked under the auspices of Ola Rakness (who himself was one of the principle collaborators with Reich). Together we have formed part of this post-reichan movement.
In our paxis as orgone therapists, we have been developing a holistic model of health, taking 'orgonomic functionalism' as a reference point -from Reich and his clinical praxis and from other post-reichans -incorporating elements of actual models that enrich the paradigm that is in contant interaction with professional reality and actual science. Carrying this holistic model forward, we believe it is highly beneficial and necessary to work in interdisciplined teams that strive for a unified solution to the illness. With this collective praxis (which we have formed by taking findings from the history of post-reichan orgone therapy) we principally utilize the following devices:
a) The Structural Differential Diagnostic (S.D.D-Serrano,1990).
b) The Characteranalytic Vegetotherapy - applied individually and fundamentally according to the systematic of F.Navarro (F.Navarro-1983;1992).
c) The application of a reichan psychotherapy framework (C.B.P -Character Boarderline Psychotherapy - Serrano,1990).
d) The investigation of the essential systematic for the appropriate functions of the psychotherapeutic processes - these have been described previously along with other specific energetic tools (Orgonomics, Audio-psychophonology, orthomolecular diet, trace elements, Auricular Therapy, Homeopathy.... - Redon and Garcia, 1990).
3.0 FUNDAMENTAL THEORETICAL PARAMETERS
3.1 NORMALITY - SICKNESS - HEALTH
Orgone Therapy, which is part of the bio-social concept of a person (along with sickness and health), focuses on three factors which are in constant relation: *
Health consists of the capacity to integrate all of the corporal functions within a united system. In as much as the bio-energetic pulsation (expansion and contraction) protoplasmatic that facilitates life, a specific metabolic function of organic energy is born, by a continuous interchange with the exterior. From the moment of conception, this facilitates a structurization and processing of organic functions that are in contionuous relation with the closest eco-system. If there is no disturbance, structurization of a united form will develop - from the less complex functions up to the most specialized; under a cephalocaudal dynamic evolution of the functions of the primary segment (telereceptors) up to the functions of the seventh and last segment, (bi-pedoation and genital sexuality), through to the maturing of the sexual function (sexual phases), utilizing diverse devices (object relations), until reaching the genital orgastic capacity (Serrano-1984). As a mediator of this pulsation of the vegetative nervous system, diencefalicohipofiscario (Spanish word-I am unable to find a translation)is the bridge between the central nervous system with the correlating neurohormones.
Experts of the hypothalamic pineal petuitary system say that this system models the emotional world - from this we can demonstrate the following; The disturbance that appears due to an alteration in the metabolism of Orgone is produced when the biosystem (in the process of structurization and development) experiences fear or anxiety (visceral anguish). This is the primary emotion and the origin of disorders because its eco-system (uterus material -maternal organism -nuclear family - nuclear social) at the least, has a lack of bio-energetic emotion or repression of expansion which consequents in the search for satisfaction of the libidinal emotion, not satisfying the necessary sexual emotion demands according to the historic moment when they were produced resulting in different consequences (see note 2). This creates a chracter-muscular defensive armour that is manifest as much as chronic muscular tensions are matured by the influence of the nervous system (affectionate/congenial) try to contain the anguish and supressed emotions - resulting in loss of 'contact' with self desires and necessities - or 'Characterial features' which facilitate the imposition of the 'role' of the function.
The armour is formed - following the logical history - from the ocular segment (eyes, ears and nose) and made from the pelvic segment (genitals, legs..). This character-muscular shield causes, with time, or because of determinate circumstances/factors - according to the structure character of the person - sickness, symptons, ailments that manifest themselves to psychic levels as somatic manifestations.
3.2 CLINICAL PLANS AND OBJECTIVES
A state of complete health cannot be achieved in an anti-sexual society that is repressed and unaware of the necessities of the embryo, feotus, or neonatal of the child or the adolescent. Most of all, the sickness or illness that is the chronic state of people that live in this society -if in the habitual, that if, in moments, does not manifest itself in the form of the symptom but will manifest itself in the form of an empty existential, a sensation of dissatisfaction or an incapacity of pleasure. An effective way to avoid these circumstances is by a dedication to the childhood prophylaxis and information, and the capture of the adult person unified with reality and the functioning of the free processes of nature.
In our clinical work, utilizing psychosomatic functions - as much nuclear as peripheral - we have to follow an appropriate methodology that will give potential to the vital possibilities of the individual without disturbing the precarious equilibrium of the patient, because, foremost, the sick organism tries to avoid the major imbalance. Therefore, the vision mechanism focally cancels the symptom which can, on ocassion, be harmful.
Without departing from a holistic conception, at various times, the avoidance of a phobia can drive it to a depressive state much like the curing of eczema could provoke asthma for example.
We are also not in favour of directly attacking the character-muscular armour or inflicting corporal violence to the subject therefore straining the biological rhythm with a chance hyperventilation due to the fact that at this stage, we do not know exactly what experiences the patient has lived through.
Orgone Therapy searches for the change in the nucleus and tries to recuperate the biological rhythm. From this we begin with two basic premises:
1) To work with the body as an energetic vibration with psychosomatic functions. If the perceived capacity of the therapy is limited by its own character-muscular armour, it cannot make sufficient contact with the expressive movements (of real significance)- gestures, sounds or emotions - with our sample of the body. Therefore, during formation, the candidate has to carry out personal vegetotherapy analysis that will permit sufficient recuperation of the perceived capacity along with the possibility of receptiveness and empathy. This necessity becomes each time more evident each time in clinical practice.
One could suppose that the question of importance that the experimenter has for the result of the experiment is what for years has driven quantum physics.
2) To deal with the illness from a multi-disciplined viewpoint that is then molded and set into interdisciplined, functional teams that contain a diverse range of specialists with a common methodology and basic theory, uniting to find a solution to the therapeutic problem. This is done without altering the clinical framework, the analytic of the Character Vegetotherapy (which is the central nodule of Orgone Therapy) and by employing convergent tools such as those previously mentioned and the following; Homeopathy, diet, focus, psychomedicine, acupuncture, audio-psycho phonology and executing specfic applications with each patient.
3) Taking into account these premises and the therapeutic processes that they possess as clinical reference points which are; the recuperation of the neurovegetative equilibrium and orgastic capacity, the free pulsation and bio-energetic circulation, the softening of the character-muscular armour, the maturing of the 'I' or 'Me' with a flexible character (Reich defined this as 'genital character') and the unitary integration of the psychosomatic functions through to an appropriate interaction between the neocortical functions - the emotions or limbics and visceral drives.
As orgone therapists, that is to say, health professionals who employ reichan technical tools and who look to achieve the well-being of the patient, we must not forget the social limits and cultures that mark the stigma and character imprint that limits the individual potential of the capacity of pleasure, expansion, creativity and growth. It is for these reasons that our clinical work can be compromised in an actual moment, which makes us therefore subject to changes to facilitate measures and devices that can put the patient in touch with their reality. This will also help to bring a sense of the reality that surrounds him/her therefore making the patient more conscious of what experience(s) was/were introduced into their life which caused the illness, of what limits their happiness in life, of what has entered the existential space, of social elements, educatives, of cultural and economic situations that limit our existence and reduce us to resignation and masked depression. It is also important to take into account that in our work, the responsibility is such that we have to think with continuous accompanied revision, in a permanent recycling of education, of a critical constructive work, to be able to reflex and adapt and perform in a team that complies with a deontological code.
All of these elements facilitate a state of tranquility and relaxation to the person lying on our couch and also provides a feeling of confidence that we are searching for their well-being and not the satisfaction of individual or necessities camouflaged below ideological discourses. Accompanying all of this is a preventative work of pathological emotion that commences in the intrauterine life.
Orgone Therapy tackles and deals efficiently with, initially, the principle psychic disturbances, such as the depressive states, phobias, anguish crisis, genital sex disorders, psychotic states, psychosomatic disturbances or somato-psychic functions which were defined by Reich as biopathies (hypertension, ulcers, asthma, immunitary disfunctions such as character neurosis or normalized situations).
Taking into account the particular individual or situation of each case, the process can last some months, for example with a focal problem utilizing 'characteranalytic orientation brief psychotherapy' (B.C.P - Serrano,1992) or along with some puntual objectives recommended in therapeutic spaces with an infrastructural limitation -this can last from 2 to 5 years with a profound problem that is difficult to deal with. Using Characteranalytic Vegetotherapy (Orgone Therapy)treatment could take place with 1,2 or 3 weekly sessions.
4) In principle, an illness without a determined or localized cause progressively effects the total system or damages the nucleus of the organic system; Ulcers, hypertension, cancer (Reich-1949 and Drew-1968).
When I write 'In principle' at the start of this paragraph, I refer to the evolution of the process not only dependant on the clinical methodology that is employed, but to other factors shown in the graphic below. Moving ahead in this way to correct parameters of the cognitive theory and systematic that contemplate from an orgonomic functionalism point of view. The sum of all of these factors will provide therapeutic development as a result. These are fundamental elements to be considered when forming the prediction of the diagnostic so that the progress of treatment is as positive as possible - in this case these are elements of characteranalytic vegetotherapy orgone therapy.
Certain variables have to be taken into account when contemplating the initial diagnostic of the analysis and also the development and final result of the orgone therapy.
3.3 CONCEPT AND CHARACTER STRUCTURE
Certain schools of thought in the psychopathological area of psychodynamics (Kernberg 1975) utilize the term sructure (psychotic neurotic limit) as a 'gradual measurement of a definition within a clinical framework', refering to the deep economic organization of the patient in the psychic terrain and to the structural signals recognized by its stability (Bergeret-1975). These schools of thought are influenced not in so much for the language, but rather for the clinical measures within a psychological conception. Another author that employs this term is A.Lowen, who makes no distinction between the 'feature of the characteristic' and the 'character structure' (Lowen-1958).
Since post-reichan orgone therapy (Serrano-1990) refers to the 'character structure', we find ourselves in an epistemologic where the psychosomatic identity is determined by the capacity of the bio-energetic pulsation that is influenced in time by the dominant social system. This social family reality normally obliges the organism to comply, limiting its expansion capacity due to constrainment by fear and anguish (Navarro-1987) that, day by day, since its conception and already influenced by the constitutional component, configures an organismic structure that has to progressively abandon its global function -therefore giving way to the development of partial specialization of certain functions of a seperate (seperation between intellectual discourse and emotion and between acting and feeling) form. These effects also utilize compensatory mechanisms between the different functions of the organism (in this way it compensates for the impossibility of abandoning one for the other with factors such as constant sexual conquest, the feeling of solitude, Bulimia...).
The biological 'I' can see the reverse side of the logical character structure expressed within itself. This is expressed more or less altered, constrained and somewhat adrift from its natural biological functions according to its own libidinal orgastic development framed within the relational objectives - substituting the 'homeostatic' mechanisms with the functional auto-regulator (Reich-1948).
At the least, a possibility exists where the character can be framed wherein the biological 'I' will not be able to find devices to express itself with a consequenting impossibility of Identification or absence of identity (i.e developing numetic mechanisms dependant on the external object). The former is in the case of the psychotic structure and not in the 'psychotic' or 'psychotic symptom' because with these terminologies we bias towards the subject and describe different factors. In this way, a neurotic structure can have a psychotic episode but this dosn't mean a degenerative linked to a character deficiency, defensive, reflected by a hyperorgonotic system, as it would be in the case of the structural psychotic. With these motives, the meaning, finality, and the actual therapy would be different if we take
into account this point of view. In the case of the former, we should discuss the term STRUCTURE -without the term 'character', in the psychotic where the disturbance 'breaks the unity of the psychicsomatic'(Navarro-1987) impided by the primative etiologic factor, the defensive psychic and the neuro-muscular structure - being a weak, soft and mimetic structure. For the remainder of cases we will discuss the 'BOARDERLINE STRUCTURE' (Boarderline Character) and 'CHARACTER NEUROTIC STRUCTURE'. It is in these three structures that we are interested in diagnosing from the first analysis in order that we may arrange the systematic, the epistemologic and the functionality of the person that has solicited our help. To execute the former, we use the following references (Serrano-1990);
a) The bio-psychosocial - constitutional predispostion
b) The orgonotic metabolism (bio-energy)
c) The objective relations and character features
d) The muscular tensions and blocks
e) The somatic and neurovegetaotive functioning
f) The actual reality, family, work and sexual appetite
In a basic manner, the psychotic structure characterizes itself in a low level of energetic absorption and pulsatil capacity with a low level of orgonotic density, and also a hyperrespiration or an immature muscular tone with a principle ocular and primative diafragmatic block - both are hyperorgonics described by F. Navarro from an original hypothesis of W.Reich. The psychic apparatus characterizes itself in a clear sensation of a divided or split 'I' (Laing), in order to be conscious of one reference or another and of a patient necessity to create mimetic referential ambiences or atmospheres with those that form and compensate this affectionate energy nuclear fruit of the intrauterine and foetal that possesses fear, by distress, a hyperorgonic mother or a 'present-absent' father which I point out in general reference - all of these factors impede the development of a structured character.
The boarderline structure (with a 'hyperorgonic diagnostic' -Navarro,1987)- a bad distribution of energy that can be found in excess in certain muscular zones, creates a strong sensation of D.O.R (Deadly Orgone Energy) or lethal energy (Reich-1945). The former is characterized by strong hyperorgonotic blocks, hypo oval or hypo (psychotic depressive nuclear) and also generalized tension with apparant character structurization, but hidden in a depressive nuclear. It is important that this can be expressed in an organic sympton of depression or in a depressive crisis bfore the request of the reference point that maintains an emotional connection relation which is the fruit of the displacement of the maternal primitive object that actually appears. According to the boarderline structure that develops at from the base of the family structure, the appearance will be different, but there already exists a strong possibility of weak contact with necessity - a whiplash fear of future prospects, or a hyperactivity that is generated so as not to 'feel oneself as the same' along with strong relational elements treated by the other.
All of these factors are a consequence of neonatal fear as prevailent initial fixation and also an empty existential that however, possesses a strong charge of anger and geniality at the base (oral affection or dissatisfied phase).
The structure of a neurotic character is formed by a structerization of the armour that maintains a rigidness at the base, by determined zones of major tension - above all diaphragm, neck and pelvis -, and by provoking an energetic situation of bad functional distribution or blocked segments. The moment of pathogenic prevailence takes place with major strength in the dynamic oedipal family with strong conflicts of identification with authority and of subjection to the same. Where the genital phallic conditions any activity , we can fundamentally observe the following characters; masochistic, compulsive, narcisistic-paranoid, narcisistic-phallic and hysteric.
The formation of the character develops in a phase of psychism development over approximately one to six years but with a marked influence from the live, good experience dynamic to a biophysical level during the intrauterine life and oral phase - although the situation of fear and contraction in this first period never would have been decisive in this structure, as it is the oedipal moment that promotes the gestation of the definitive character structure.
4.0 CLINICAL PRAXIS
4.1 STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTIC (S.D.D)
During the initial stage that commences from the first telephone call requesting our clinical assistance, or the first visit, it is necessary to dedicate oneself to obtaining a differential diagnostic. Accepting the fact that a therapeutic relation may already exist, the analysis as such will not commence until a 'therapeutic contract' has been established (Greenson-1967). With regard to the former, three conditions are indispensible:
1) 'That the patient comes of his/her own free will and desire' (Baker-1969).
2) That there is not a situation of disassociative crisis or toxic.... and therefore the problem is different in this case.
3) That a therapeutic plan can be constructed with minimum prediction -and for this a time of 'differential diagnostic' is necessary (Serrano-1990).
During this time we will decide and inform the patient; who is the most appropriate person to conduct their analysis - always respecting the free election of the analyist but taking into account factors such as ensuring that seperate analysis is not carried out with a spouse or other family members or relations of the patient, of the number of sessions according to the diagnostic and duration of the same, and to inform the patient of the basic particulars of the therapeutic methodology - decanting from a more focused clinical problem with brief characteranalytic psychotherapy (B.C.P) or, in respect of a more profound problem, using characteranalytic vegetotherapy (orgone therapy) either as an individual patient or within a group therapy environment (whichever is the most appropriate). Of the techniques that are exposed to contamination, it is not necessary that the patient completes all of the them - only those that are necessary, as each therapist arrives at an initial hypothesis of work with a firm base (although the analytic process can take shape and deepen the diagnostic.
It is convenient to begin with the verbal dynamic, except, and I emphasise this most strongly, in crisis situations or emotional states particular to the patient ;
(1) Amnesis: To begin a conversation with the patient without structuring but with a wire conductor. We start dialogue, indicated with moments of spontaneous moments of silence by our suggestion and then we can start to compile data which brings us closer to the constitutional reality; Objective relations, disorders or psychic disfunctions somatics, emotions, sexual development, physical traumas, friendships, family relations, love life, life routines, frustrations, repetitive dreams, manner of eating, manner of eating, diets, sports, manias and the patients motivation to begin therapy. All of these things looks to cover the objectives mentioned previously, but above all, we look into the COMO - the patients expressivity, fears and emotions. We must also compile data of other family members if the opportunity arises, accompanied by other clinical analysis (if one exists)or data compiled by other specialists. Since the interview already favours the THERAPEUTIC RELATION, and if this relation implies there is more than one, we do not treat the patient as if we are extracting information but that we are being attentive to the patient and his/her history. (2) Together with the amnesis, we can carry out a test or projected test, or utilize a test made by a another specialist, such as the frustration test of Rosenberg, the objective relations test of Philipson, the T.A.T, the Roscharch, the orientation of character structure of Navarro or the Audio-psycho phonology listening test. (3) Different biopathic tests through to the chemical analytic, of oligoelements and proteins, the hematic test of Vicennes and the hematic 'T' test of Reich (Reich-1948;Redon-1987).
(4) Inside of the neurovegetotive variables we can observe the changes in corporal temperature, in the pulsations and in the subjective sensations of embarrasment, irritation, heat, cold,..with the use of the Or.Ac.- this is the way in which thermic changes of the skin by contact, the artery pressure, pulsators, perspiration, salvation, pupil response to changes in light (with the torch), the response to the reflection of the ocular motor where, through to the radial pulse and oppression of the closed ocular globes we can predominate affection or para-affection.
(5) The use of the Reichan massage: a technique developed by Reich where in the supine and prone positional state, we can localize the chronic muscular tensions and defences that structure the muscular armour. Knowing that a distinction has to be made between adequate form, muscular tension of the blocked segment, and also to recognise the difference between the actual tension from the chronic tension. In this way, for example, with regard to the head, we can apply frontal pressure and 'make faces' at the subject so as to observe the mobility of the same; we apply pressure to the cavities of Bichat at the temples, the muscles that work the insertion of the inferior mandibular and the occipital base - always maintaining uniform pressure in relation to the general muscular tone of each patient. We palpate the mastoid apofosis, the posterior muscluture of the neck. On ocassions, the fibrous nodule contacts can appear which are the fruit of the tension of the muscular truss, that can be observed disappearing - confirming the progress of the analytical process. We palpate the sternocleido mastoids from the mastoid insertion up to the clavicle of the shoulder, the trapezions; the pectoral muscles, we observe respiratory mobility - superficial and profound, apply pressure to the thorax which will also apply pressure to the diafragm and the abdomen; compression of the iliac fosas, pressure in internal muscles, twins, grudge level, postirolateral of the vertebral column, feelin the existing resistance that exists to gain access to the paravertebral musclurture; the diafragmatic tension with a resistance of D7,D8 level and the gluteos. (6)
The execution of certain 'actings' - that is to say, neuromuscular movement structural functions - historically speaking, with the end of profoundness in the capacity of the execution of the function or the grade of the alteration of the same, according to the neuromuscular response. This also allows us to observe muscular compensations and moreover, characterials, such as, 'each segment of seven in the heart correlates to a historictime or a basic psychodynamic situation' (Navarro-1987). All this supposes a hermeneutic of corporal forms and signals.
The most significant 'actings' are as follows; The first, or ocular segment follows the movement of the luminous part of the descending torch, continuing from the frontal line and descending to the point of the nose. One can observe problems of ocular convergence and of predominace of one eye above another, such as the difference between looking and seeing... all elements which are connected to the pre and primitive neonatal period.
In the second, or oval segment, we indicate to the patient to maintain teeth clenched, with the lips open whilst focusing to a point. Also, we can combine an execution of 360 degrees giration with the eyes, where one can note the function of regression retention of oral anger social conflict. We ask the patient to produce a gesture of suction (like a fish), with the lips.
For the third, or cervical segment, we request the subject to let the head fall down from its position of rest so as to be off the couch,
including the neck.
For the fourth, throacic segment, we invite the subject to produce a spiral vocal, saying the letter 'A' (in Spain), opening the throat whilst similtaneously bringing forward the shoulders. With this movement we involve six segments (from the first to the sixth), as each posterior segment supports the functions of the anterior segments.
Therefore, with the vegetotherapy methodology, we follow the teachings of Reich and Navarro, we carry out the systematic from the cephalic to caudal zones.
For the seventh, or pelvic segment, we indicate to the patient to raise the pelvic region and supporting this with folded legs with the feet in contact with the couch, and to move the pelvis from left to right.
The time of each 'acting' should be between five and ten minutes. What we are most interested in observing during these stages, and I stress, are the following superficial mechanisms; the masochist imprint or the narcisist of each person, the hidden form of his/her limits, their necessity to stay well, the 'I can't...' and so many other things that can be observed while with the physical body of the patient, taking into acount that so many of the diagnostic 'actings' are those of the individual vegetotherapy executed while the patient is a posture of a Reich position.
(7) Finally, all of these tests should be united, as I have mentioned previously, to the observation of the self-emotional energetic response and neurovegetotive aspect of orgone therapy, driving the empathy and contratransference to the 'orgonomic contact' terrain (Reich-1948).
There is no definitive test of any structure' would be a coherent and multi-facial answer and systematic that permits the appropriate differential diagnostic. We accept that the diagnostic has only one objective - to facilitate the development of the analytic process and not to question morals or values and be judgemental. We also aknowledge that there is only one appropriate group or individual supervision, conscious of the capacity of the reichan analyist and the personal orgone therapy, one can begin to have greater control and be sure ofthe differential diagnostic and its therapeutic function.
4.2 CLINICAL METHODOLOGY OF ORGONE THERAPY
Characteranalytic Vegetotherapy - Taking the structural diagnostic (S.D.D) as a starting point, one formularizes the 'therapeutic contract' and commences the analytic process within a brief or profound framework. At this moment, we centre in detail on the key areas of the methodology and characteranalytic vegetotherapy techniques that construct the deep corporal psycho therapy framework with some psycho dynamic bases and phenomenonlogical marks. One can execute this work individually, or as part of the therapy, combine it with group therapy. We now focus on the prblem of the individual, posteriorally, we can first look at the work in the form of group therapy:
a) Therapeutic Space and Relation
The place where one carries out the therapeutic process has a significance, which the patient is unconscious of which is of some importance, taking into account that in this space, there is not only the 'furniture decoration' but also the therapy which is all a part of the progressive possibility of a 'therapeutic relation' - 'dichotomic and functional' - that the patient begins to be actively receptive to the techniques and devices that the therapist makes available, feeling the self relation, a transformer device, accepting the structure of the therapy of the patient and recognizing and analytically elaborating the 'therapeutic contract', the 'therapeutic alliance' (Greenson), the 'transference of neurosis' (Freud), the 'psychosis'-transference of (Searles) or transference connection (as I prefer to call it) and the 'contratransference' (Freud,Reich).
It is during the 'therapeutic analytic relation' in individual sessions, where the patient is permanently in a lying position on the couch or divan in view of the therapist (orgone therapist) - respecting at every moment the biological rhythm of the patient and observing a deontological professional function - employing appropriate devices for each particular case.
b) Neuromuscular 'Actings'
The first muscular segment (Reich-1942/1949) comprehends the telereceptors, that is to say, the eyes, ears and nose (which forms the point of the oval segment)and the skin in general where the perceptive mechanisms are produced in connection with the diafragm, the existential nuclear and the correlation between the three 'brains' (i.e cortical, limbic and visceral)- taking the scheme of Maclean. It is the most primitive of the brains which begins to take note of the possible traumatic phenomones produced during the intrauterine, foetal and the first days of life.
To continue the inter-relation with the first segment, it is the second segment (mouth, lips and tongue, phonation organs and occipital base), connected with the oral phase with a strong connection with the pelvis, on account of the sexual segment for antonomasia. One fundamentally structures and tensions during the first two years of life.
The third segment bridges between the mouth and the thorax (and this, for F.Navarro, is the classic block in this society), base of the narcisistic factor and of control, of the first sensor or auto-control, and the wedge of ambivalence as it is so closely connected to the thorax. This originates from and during the anal stage as a reaction to dissatisfaction and frustration from the oral stage from the first to the third year of life.
The fourth segment is what groups all the muscularture connected to the anterior and posterior breast, bridge between the cervical and diafragmatic, base of ambivalence in connection with masochism. One inhibits the thoracic respiration as a form of auto-control and moreover, to avoid harm or punishment before the impulses fade away. It has its origen around the second year structuring during the third year further ahead. The connection is of the contact phenomones of the body with the world.
The fifth segment is the most important vital nuclear, as it is the channel of vital pulsation of energetic circulation, regulating the principle neurovegetotive phenomones and is also connected to the principle vital organs, therefore acting as the respitory regulator. If the blockage is hyperorgonic (excess energy charge) it surmounts the oedipal moment and anguish of castration. It structures during adolesence for around three to five years.
The sixth segment constitutes a bridge between the diafragm and the pelvis (eg. legs and feet) with the problem of settling and making contact with the floor, connecting the theme of self sexual identity and definition capacity or ontological security, impeding the energetic discharge and moreover, the development of the vital cycle that favours the orgasm function. The tension and block make their appearance during the oedipal moment (masturbation, sexual games etc.) and structurize during adolesence if pleasure capacity is impeded to avoid consequenting anguish.
Reich wrote, 'The segmented disposition in the armour is the manifestation of the rigidness of hard parts in the understanding space. One has to dissolve the armour, always beginning from the extremity to the point or 'head', continuing to the extremity of the pelvis or 'tail', developing the self bio-energetic feeling'(Reich-1945). Following this clinical maxim, we employ the systematic carried out by F.Navarro (1992) utilizing the exercise of 'actings' or neuromuscular movements that have a neurovegetotive and historic functionality in the seven segments of the character muscular described previously. The muscular nmemory retains an emotional impact. According to the historical moment of this impact, one can look to the segment whose functionality history prevails (such as the frustration or oral affection - oral segment). To activate the muscular memory, suppressed effects or forgetful memory emerges favouring the 'open action'.
With those movements that favour the material emergence and 'free association', we respect the biological rhythm of the patient to secure a neurophysiological logic that permits the organized appearance of the effects, from intrauterine life up to the genital phase - always taking into account the particularities and the 'here and now' of each patient. In this way, the corporal manipulation of the body of the subject, will at least, execute a form of contact or help with the expression of emotion already manifest in certain movements. What is of particular interest to ourselves, is the facilitation of the plasmatic free movement and to begin reproduction of the 'actings', working with the subject and not 'on' the subject - we have obtained the following equation :
Muscular emotional movement --- stimulation of energetic terrain ---cortex --- reticular formation --- thalamus --- hypothalamus ---vegetotive centres --- vagotonic expressive movements --- spontaneous hyperrespiration --- appearance of forgetful memory, accompanied, on occassions, with the life experience of known memory or spontaeous, emotional or conscious 'open action', connecting the historical experience with the 'here and now' of the therapeutic space.
It is this 'open action' emotional therapeutic and organizer (Serrano 1984) that permits energetic mobilization, changing the logic that maintains muscular tension with the consequenting positive neurovegetotive and neurohormonal repercussions - facilitating recouperation of complete respiration, physiological base of celular pulsation.
In this manner, in the first segment for example, we indicate to the patient to continue paying attention to the movement of the torch (manipulated by the therapist who is seated behind the patient) which is approximately 20cm distance away from the patients eyes. The patient must focus on the torch and follow the movement that terminates at the point of the nose, permitting the reproduction of an action that was decisive in the post-natal period. This exploration focalizes on the object in the differentiation process from the partial object to the total object along with the 'I' and 'not I' passage. Furthermore, we are directly stimulationg the pineal gland and helping the regulation of the biological rhythm, together with the phototonic effects produced by light stimulation.
We also execute the neuromuscular work at this point to assist the patient with focalization (occular muscles). With this acting - which is one of the easiest to execute - we follow a sequence that continues up to the reproduction of the most complete 'acting', in as much as this occurs during the formation and structerization of organismic functions. The most complete 'acting' is the 'medusa' where total body participation takes place and reproduces an expression of sexual pleasure abandonment with respiratory movement accompanied with voalization. In the oral segment, we will indicate to the patient, between other 'actings', to reproduce a suction gesture that in the oral phase had a basic sexual affection function. In the thoracic segment, we indicate to the patient to verbalize the word 'I' accompanied with the lowering of the outstretched, erect arms to the couch reproducing an auto-affirmative function.
We continue successively in this way with this process. The movements develop along and throughout the seven segments, noting a strong interrelation between the armour rings that contract and retract as aplasmatic function, that is to say, the nulear of the biosystem and systems that have been altered.
c) Verbal Integration and Analytic Production
In Parallel to the execution of the 'actings', the 'character analysis' (Reich-1933), all the corporal variables can be utilized as elements that facilitate production and analysis. Apart from the use of the 'actings', it is important to develop a free association of the lived, included or experimented from the psychic productions obtained during the execution of the same. A very useful tool, is not to have a specific model of execution that each person utilizes in the exercise of the acting that indicates possible resistances or inhibition of contact with unconscious substratums. All these elements are utilized in the word 'analysis' through elaboration to therapeutic relations, taking into account the circumstances of the actual life of the person at all levels, including the oneiric. Permitting with the integration and the production of all factors from this word to the cortical, the evolution of the psychotherapeutic process.
4.3 CONVERGENT ENERGETIC TOOLS
In specific moments of the psychotherapeutic process, the analyst can deem it appropriate to utilize any specific techniques, organized from a more general medical terrain, although psychological techniques can be used from other psychotherapeutic models (such as logotherapy techniques when problems that are connected with death are encountered; systemics, certain psychotic situations; gestalts that produce the 'here and now').
In this way, patients with a psychotic structure that exists within a weak biological terrain, it could be important to combine vegetotherapy (relying on particular parts of this structure) with psychoactive drugs at appropriate points of the crisis - applied in a functional form to help maintain a minimum contact with reality and to reduce suffering, but without avoiding contact with the emotional substratum nor with the pulsionality that accompanies the crisis. When the transferential bond has already been established that permits the injection of therapy as a continuity of therapeutic relation and categorizing it as a 'good object', the psychotherapeutic processes will combine with the Or.Ac, audio-psycho phonology, homeopathy, copper-gold-silver in oligo elements, selenium and a diet accompanied with antioxidant vitamins. It could always be the case that the therapist carries the global or ultimate responsibility of the treatment and therefore, not to debilitate the transferential connection.
With patients with a boarderline structure that also develop psychosomatic disorders, we combine vegetotherapy with the convergent tools or devices described earlier according to the boarderline structure and the therapeutic phase. It will also depend on those factors that the therapist utilizes with these different techniques or carries out these techniques with other professionals as part of a team. Also, those that are used to charge the energetic nuclear of the biosystem or for to lower the level of D.O.R (stagnant energy) outlining some of the neuromuscular zones.
Finally, with patients that have a neurotic character structure, one can combine characteranalytic vegetotherapy with psychoactive drugs, or convergent tools that facilitate the reduction of the energetic stasis of certain segments, mobilizing the superficial D.O.R. and furthermore, delegating certain tasks to other professionals of the team and Clearly seperating the clinical vegetotherapeutic work of the professional from the remainder.
Fom the end of the orgone therapy, one maintains a historic plan or patient history that may help with any future regression and as much the asendance of the transferential neurosis. Other factors also have to be considered such as to not be directly implicated in actual aspects of the patients illness, maintaining a level of communication in a more direct plan, and that the patient also has an active function - in this way, avoiding a level of hierarchical medical communication or dialogue for the function that appears, and where the patient is more passive.
This clinical praxis entails a constant interrelation with the professionals that are dealing with the same case, fundamentally being the reference of the orgone therapist that is conducting the vegetotherapy with the patient, apart from those that use other medical devices. It is also very important to take into the accountpoints of view of other team members, as this may avoid the psychotherapeutic process coming to a 'blind point'that can, on many occassions, be discovered from the outside.
The characteristics of the clinical work are such that it will be important that the professionals maintain an adequate level of energetic regulation, utilizing techniques that permit rapid metabolization of D.O.R that has accumulated during the sessions as part of the interchange with the patients (Serrano-1992) and carrying a sex-affection life sufficiently satisfactorily.
Along with all of the previously mentioned factors, for us, clinical meetings of certain cases and seminars are of fundamental importance as the periodic vegetotherapy sessions of the therapists as this keeps contact with the actual clinical, scientific and social situation that permits us to see the continuing growth of our work and the social and scientific community.